2015年7月17日 星期五

蔡英文:未來的挑戰與機會(The Challenges and Opportunities of the Future )



未來的挑戰與機會(The Challenges and Opportunities of the Future )Q&A


民進黨主席暨總統參選人蔡英文今天(7/17)應邀出席「第七屆全球集思論壇」,以「未來的挑戰與機會」進行英文演說,並與中研院前院長李遠哲及青年學生進行對談。蔡英文表示,今天她將與年輕學生們談全球化對於年輕世代所帶來的挑戰與機會,希望年輕學子能夠勇敢面對。

蔡英文演講前先對李遠哲說,「我向你們保證李教授絕對不會停止透過他的影響力去說服台灣的政治人物。所以,我要說:李教授,您說的話我聽到了,我要告訴您,因為您,我會思考將這個巴黎協議(Paris Agreement)放進我2016年的政策方向。」

蔡英文表示,對於一個政府來說,把這個巴黎協議納入政策,將會充滿困難與挑戰。尤其,我們現在正在試圖去重新塑造及重新建構我們的產業結構。在達成2025非核家園的目標的同時,也必須要確保我們有足夠的電力去提供產業轉型的需求。因此,這是民進黨的挑戰,未來執政團隊的挑戰,也是台灣整體的挑戰。

蔡英文演說中分享了日前美國參訪的一些心得,也提到去年的太陽花學運,她說,太陽花運動有一句話我特別喜歡:「自己的國家自己救」。以各位所受的教育和專業技能,未來全球化將帶來的機會,要由各位自己來把握。而各位在世界上的定位,要由自己下定義。

蔡英文也提到,2008年,她看見了另一個機會,接下一項截然不同的任務,那就是帶領民進黨走出當時我們所面臨的巨大挑戰,儘管當時她的政治歷練不多。每一次的機會,幫助她更清楚定義我是誰,也更了解自己的能力。未來,她希望有機會可以面對另一個更大的挑戰,領導這個國家。

蔡英文表示,所以儘管她無法告訴各位,這個世界2050年會長什麼樣子,她可以肯定地說,未來的世界,取決於我們今天的一舉一動。取決於各位是否能駕馭全球化所帶來的契機,為自己在世界上的定位,自己下定義。取決於各位是否準備好,抓緊迎面出現的機會與契機。

蔡英文說,更取決於各位是否選擇超越過去做事情陳舊、過時的方法,超越自己的舒適圈。因為在世界各地,那些方法都已經被實踐。因此,她鼓勵各位勇於冒險、挑戰自我。勇於採取風險,並且不要被框架給侷限,因為機會往往就在框架之外。

蔡英文演講中英對照全文:
Thank you, everybody. It's great to be back at the National Taiwan University.
謝謝大家,很高興今天有機會回到台大。

Professor Lee, Pei-hung (培閎), Hsu-hua (栩華) and the rest of the young and talented organizers at GIS Taiwan, ladies and gentlemen, good afternoon. Thank you for putting this event together. These events are important as we look towards how the next generation can contribute to our society. I also appreciate the welcome from our participants. By joining this event, you've shown that you've already taken the first steps in building a better future for all of us.
李遠哲教授,培閎、栩華,還有全球集思論壇各位年輕又有才華的主辦學生,午安。感謝各位舉辦這場活動。當我們將目光投向下個世代的年輕人如何貢獻社會時,這類的活動特別重要。我也非常感謝所有聽眾的熱烈歡迎。今天每一位出席這場活動的參與者,對於打造一個更好的未來,都已經跨出了第一步。

I heard that there were many foreign students here today. Are there any foreign students here from abroad? Please raise your hand.
我知道,我們在場有很多外籍的學生。在場的外籍學生可以舉手嗎?

Before I address the issue of the challenges and opportunities for the future, I have to say few words about Professor Lee. I assure you that he has never and will never stop trying to exercise whatever influence he has on the politicians here. So I heard what you have to say, and I want to tell you that because of you, I have taken into account of this forthcoming Paris agreement into my policy agenda for 2016.
在我演講「台灣未來的挑戰與機會」之前,我想要對李遠哲教授說幾句話。我向你們保證李教授絕對不會停止透過他的影響力去說服台灣的政治人物。所以,我要說,李教授,您說的話我聽到了,我要告訴您,因為您,我會思考將這個巴黎協議(Paris Agreement)放進我2016年的政策方向。

It’s going to be hard and it’s going to be very difficult for a government to take into account this Paris agreement. And it’s going to be a lot of challenges for us, especially at the time when we are trying to reshape and restructure our industries here. We have to make sure we have sufficient supply of energy given that we have an agenda to phase out nuclear power in 2025. So this is something of the challenge for the DPP, the next administration and Taiwan as a whole.
對於一個政府來說,把這個巴黎協議納入政策,將會充滿困難與挑戰。尤其,我們現在正在試圖去重新塑造及重新建構我們的產業結構。我們在達成2025非核家園的目標的同時,也必須要確保我們有足夠的電力去提供產業轉型的需求。因此,這是民進黨的挑戰,未來執政團隊的挑戰,也是台灣整體的挑戰。

So, back to the issue at hand, as some of the best and brightest students in Taiwan, many of you must be thinking about how you can prepare yourself to meet the challenges of the future. And make no mistake, your future will be different from your parent's generation. Some parts of it will be better. Some parts may not go as expected. But to a large extent, this will depend on the decisions you make today.
所以回到演講主題,身為台灣最優秀、最聰明的一群學生,你們當中一定有許多人正在思考如何做好準備,迎向未來的挑戰。不要懷疑,你們的未來會跟你們父母的世代很不一樣。有些地方會有進步。有些地方會和預期中的不大一樣。不過有很大一部份,都將取決於各位現在所進行的各種選擇。

That's what brings me here - the question of how we can get ourselves prepared to meet the opportunities and challenges of the next generation.
這就是我今天來的原因:一起來討論我們如何讓自己做好準備,迎接下個世代的機會與挑戰。

Last month, as some of you may know, we had an opportunity to visit the U.S. to speak with a wide range of policy-makers, scholars, and members of the Taiwanese community in the U.S.
在場的各位應該有人知道,我們上個月有機會到美國訪問,對話的對象包含各領域的政策專家、學者還有許多台僑。

In our final city, San Francisco, we arranged to meet with a number of technology companies and entrepreneurs. There are a few observations I want to share with you.
在我們拜訪的最後一個城市舊金山,我們安排跟許多科技公司和創業家會面。我想要跟大家分享幾點觀察。

We had a discussion at Cisco one morning. They showed us some of the innovative ideas they were working on, including how this idea called the Internet of Things is opening up new opportunities in countries all over the world.
我們有一天早上在思科Cisco進行一場會談。他們介紹了一些發展中的創新思維,包括物聯網的概念。這種新思維近來在世界各地打開許多新契機。

It is a broad concept, but the heart of it is quite simple: It’s about how vehicles can communicate with each other to improve traffic flows; how power plants can communicate with electricity meters for more efficiency; and how people can communicate with government for more accessibility to basic services.
雖然物聯網是一個應用廣泛的概念,核心的理念卻很簡單:例如讓車輛彼此溝通訊息,使得交通更加順暢;讓發電廠可以和家戶的電錶連接,以增進用電效率;或是讓人民可以更輕易和政府單位溝通,讓人民輕鬆接觸到基層的公共服務措施。

These ideas were being discussed in a meeting room in San Francisco. But they have the potential to change how long a motorist waits at a red-light in Keelung.
這些點子在一個舊金山的會議室裡面被人討論、生產出來。可是激盪出來的想法,卻有潛力改變一個在基隆的機車騎士,等紅燈要等多久。

It’s a new era of finding global solutions for local challenges and, perhaps, vice-versa. And we need people that are capable of harnessing these solutions and bringing them back to Taiwan or from delivering them from Taiwan to the world.
在這個新的時代,要用全球的方法解決在地的挑戰,而同時也將在地的方法因應全球的挑戰。我們需要的人才,要有能力駕馭這些解決問題的方法,並把方法帶回台灣,也能把台灣的新方法帶往世界。

My second observation took place in Facebook.
我在參觀Facebook公司時有第二點觀察。

Within their headquarters was this floor-to-ceiling LCD that displayed in real-time all the Facebook interactions taking place around the world.
在他們的總部,有一個從地板到天花板的大型液晶螢幕,即時顯示世界各地在臉書上面正在進行的互動。

One of the brightest clusters was around Taiwan. We have the highest percentage of Facebook users in the world. These connections, which include friendships, business connections, and shared interests, extended to Japan, South East Asia, the United States, and other countries all over the world.
其中一個最明亮的群聚點就是台灣。我們擁有世界上比例最高的臉書使用人口。這些人與人之間的連結包括友情、生意往來的客戶、以及共同的興趣,向外延伸到日本、東南亞、美國以及世界各國。

It was a pertinent remainder of how inherently global we all are, even though sometimes we do not see it on televisions or newspapers.
這給我們一個重要的提醒,告訴我們台灣在本質上是一個全球性的社會,儘管我們有時候無法在電視或報章雜誌上察覺到這件事情。

And being global is our strength: it’s why Taiwan exports more than Spain, Australia, and Brazil. It’s why we have NTU, one of the top universities in Asia. And it’s why we have such a diversity of cultures and experiences even right here on campus.
全球連結正是我們的優勢:這是台灣的出口量勝過西班牙、澳洲和巴西的原因。也造就了國立台灣大學,全亞洲最優秀的學府之一。這也是為什麼我們就連在這座校園裡,有如此豐富多元的文化體驗。

When people think about globalization, many tend to think about factories, free-trade, as well as its impact to laborers and workers, especially in higher-income countries like Taiwan. These are valid concerns and we must do everything we can to ensure that trade is responsible and that its benefits are equitably distributed.
當人們想到全球化,一般會想到工廠、自由貿易還有對勞工的衝擊,特別是在台灣這種相對高收入的國家。這些都是合理的顧慮,我們也必須盡可能確保貿易有善盡社會責任,並且讓利益能均衡分配。

But we must also recognize that globalization is more: it's also about finding our own place in the world.
不過我們也必須對全球化有更深一層的認識:全球化促使我們在世界上尋找我們自己的定位。

The answer to this will vary, depending on the people you talk to. Politicians, for example, tend to define this statement in a geopolitical or strategic context, particularly given Taiwan’s precarious position in the world.
這個問題的答案,會因人而異。例如說,政治人物傾向從地緣政治或是戰略的角度來定義這個命題,尤其是因為台灣處於獨特的國際處境。

But globalization is different for a group of young entrepreneurs looking to raise capital for their start-ups.
但全球化對於一群正在籌募資金的年輕創業家,代表了不同的意義。

For example, a group of ten young people in Taiwan recently kick-started their newest 3D printer in both Europe and Japan, where they raised over 7 million NT - exceeding their target 27 times over. This group, which comprised of just one person in 2013, now plans to one day sell their product all over the world.
舉例來說,有十個來自台灣的年輕人,最近在歐洲和日本為最新的3D印表機集資,他們募集了超過七百萬台幣:超過預設目標27倍。這個新創公司在2013年只有一個人,現在計畫有一天要在全世界各地販賣他們的產品。

It’s also different for young people leveraging technology to promote their local culture.
對於運用科技來推廣在地文化的年輕人來說,全球化也代表了不同的意義。

In Keelung, three culture enthusiasts recently launched an app that acts as a digital tour guide in museums and exhibitions, replacing cumbersome guidebooks and audio guides. Their first project? Ensuring that people, including tourists, have easier information about cultural landmarks in Keelung right at their fingertips.
基隆有三個文化資產愛好者,最近開發了一個新的APP,提供一個給博物館和展覽使用的數位導覽工具,取代笨重的旅遊書籍和語音導覽。他們的第一個計畫是什麼呢?確保所有人,包括觀光客,能在指掌間輕鬆取得基隆文化地標的資訊。

These are true stories that are taking place right this minute all over Taiwan. We’ve put their stories up on my website.
這些都是台灣各地正在發生的真實案例。我們已經把他們的故事放在我的網站上。

Across the country, we're starting to see young people leverage globalization to create new opportunities for themselves and their communities. They show that the possibilities are truly endless.
我們在全國各地不斷看見年輕人運用全球化的契機,為自己和在地社區創造更多的機會。他們的案例告訴我們,這個時代有無限的可能。

There was one phrase I was especially fond of during the Sunflower Movement; that was '自己的國家自己救 - it's up to you to save your own country.' With your education and your skill set, today it's up to you to harness the new opportunities globalization is bringing.
太陽花運動有一句話我特別喜歡:「自己的國家自己救」。以各位所受的教育和專業技能,未來全球化將帶來的機會,要由各位自己來把握。

It's up to you to define your own place in the world.
而各位在世界上的定位,要由自己下定義。

This doesn't mean that the government won't have a role. In fact, it gives the government a stronger imperative to focus its efforts on where it will count. The key idea is that it should facilitate opportunities where you can succeed.
這並不代表政府不會扮演任何角色。事實上,這給政府更強烈的使命,把精力集中在可以發揮影響力的地方。關鍵的思維在於,要在各位可能獲得成就的領域,創造機會。

The first thing we should be looking at is how to strengthen our education system.
我們要著眼的第一件事情,就是如何強化我們的教育體系。

At least by some metrics, Taiwanese have been better businesspeople than educators. Our top company is ranked number 32 on the Forbes 500 – but our top university is only ranked 155 on the latest Times Higher Education ranking.
從某些指標來看,台灣人做生意比擔任教育家來得成功。我們最大的企業在富比士500大企業的排行榜上名列第32名,但是我們的頂尖大學在泰晤士報高等教育排行中,只有第155名。

We need to look at how we can reform the system so that it can play a more central role in upgrading our industries, cultivating talent, and engaging in research. We need to step back and identify areas of opportunity in our economy and make sure that we’re equipping our students with the necessary skills to take advantage of these opportunities.
我們必須要思考如何改革我們的教育系統,讓教育可以在產業升級、人才培育以及研發工作中,扮演更核心的角色。我們必須要退一步,辨識我們的產業環境中能提供給年輕人機會的領域,並且確保我們提供青年學子必要的技能,把握這些契機。

The second is how we can better support innovation and associated business development.
第二點,是我們如何更完善地支援創新思維和其他相關的商業發展。

In the past, two popular sayings we had in Taiwan were: ‘Everybody is an entrepreneur (人人都可以是創業者)’ and ‘Every family is a factory (家庭即工廠)’. We need to regain that spirit.
過去,台灣民間流行兩句話:「人人都可以是創業者」還有「家庭即工廠」。我們必須重新找回這樣的精神。

The knowledge economy means that new companies don’t necessarily need large factories, but they do need places where ideas can be traded. We should provide support for co-working spaces, maker bars, and other venues where innovation can take place.
隨著知識經濟的到來,新的企業不見得需要大型的工廠,但是卻需要地點可以交換彼此的想法。未來我們要支持共同工作空間、自造者空間,以及其他可以鼓勵創新的場所。

And because we want innovation to take place sooner, rather than later, other areas where we need to work on include access to start-up capital, and ensuring that our regulatory environment is one that is conducive to international talent.
另外,由於我們希望創意可以盡快實現,我們必須著力的其他領域包括讓創業資金更容易取得,並確保我們的經濟管制環境有利於招募國際人才。

This brings me back to my last point, when is the best time to start? As an old proverb once said: “The best time to plant a tree is 20 years ago. The second best time is now.”
這就回到我的最後一點,我們該什麼時候開始呢?有一句諺語說,「種樹最好的時機是二十年前。第二好的時機就是現在。」

The fact is that Taiwan is at a crossroads, especially in terms of our economy.
事實上,台灣現在位於十字路口,特別是經濟方面。

On the one hand, some of our challenges are daunting. Our current economic track is unsustainable: studying hard and being a good student does not guarantee you a well-paying job or a decent lifestyle. A well-paying job does not guarantee you the prospect of one day buying an apartment.
一方面,我們面臨的許多挑戰相當艱鉅。我們現行的經濟軌道無法永續發展:用功讀書、當個好學生無法保證你獲得一個穩定收入的工作或是良好的生活品質。穩定收入的工作,更無法保證你有一天會有能力買房。

Our industry remains driven by cost-based efficiency and not innovation-based value. The benefits of economic growth have not been fairly distributed within our society.
我們的產業依然被價格上的效益所驅動,而非創意帶來的附加價值。至於經濟成長所帶來的利益,也尚未在社會中取得公平分配。

There is also a lack of trust in our government. The threat to our economic autonomy continues to be a great source of public unease. One after another, food safety scandals have undermined the faith in our institutions and products.
社會對政府普遍缺乏信任。我們的經濟自主性持續受到威脅,造成社會的焦慮。一個又一個食安風暴,破壞我們對制度和產品的信心。

But on the other hand, we see a great source of optimism and opportunity.
但另一方面,我們也有樂觀的理由與契機。

Our young people are our best educated generation ever. No one is better equipped or prepared than you to take advantage of all the opportunities globalization is bringing.
我們的年輕人是台灣有史以來,教育程度最高的一個世代。沒有人比你們各位有更充足的準備,可以把握全球化所帶來的機會。

I’m excited whenever I see a young hostel owner in Hualien use Air BnB to promote her business. Or when an entrepreneur compares the difference between raising funding for his start-up on Y Combinator in the U.S. or AppWorks here in Taiwan. I hear the enthusiasm when innovators talk about 3D printing or virtual reality headsets.
當我看到一個在花蓮開民宿的年輕人,用Air BnB網站為自己的店家進行宣傳,我感到非常興奮。或是當一個創業家,去比較美國Y Combinator和台灣AppWorks募資過程上的差異,我也一樣感到期待。當這些開創者在談論3D列印或是虛擬實境技術時,我可以感受到他們的熱情。

So the question that we face is, will we let our challenges define Taiwan in the decades to come? Can we afford to sit by while China and our neighbors in Southeast Asia catch-up? Or do we harness opportunities and create a new agenda to move Taiwan forward?
所以我們現在面臨的問題是,我們是否要讓台灣所面臨的挑戰定義台灣接下來幾十年的命運?我們是否經得起讓中國和鄰近的東南亞國家急起直追?或是我們可以駕馭這些契機,替台灣制定新的議程,讓台灣向前邁進?

I’m confident that your answer is the same as my own. What Taiwan will look like in the next few decades will depend on our willingness to find new opportunities and act today.
我有信心,各位的答案與我相同。台灣接下來幾十年的面貌,取決於我們今天是否願意尋找新的契機,並且立即採取行動。

Finally, I also wanted to share with you some of my own experiences. When I graduated from this university in 1978, I never imagined that I would have a career in politics, much less one day become that Chairperson of the DPP and possibly the next president of Taiwan.
最後,我也想要跟各位分享一些我自己的親身體驗。當我1978年從台大畢業時,從來沒有想過會踏上政治的道路,更沒想過有一天會成為民進黨主席,甚至可能成為台灣下一位總統。

I was trained in law and economics. I felt that it was very natural for me to have a career that can make best use of the two disciplines. So after I finished my doctorate from the London School of Economics, I returned to Taiwan where I spent a number of years teaching international trade law and policy.
我當年接受法律和經濟學方面的訓練,所以很自然地,選擇了一個用得上這兩方面專業知識的職涯領域。完成倫敦政經學院的博士學位後,我回到台灣,前面幾年時間在大學教授國際貿易法與政策。

Since the mid-1980s, I have been working as a trade negotiator for the government. At the time, Taiwan was working on a broad range of trade negotiations, particularly the negotiations for entering the WTO, an enormous task that involved thousands of regulatory changes. I was fortunate to have taken the chance to be the lead counsel to the negotiation team and help Taiwan enter the WTO.
自從80年代,我就擔任起政府的貿易談判家。當時台灣正爭取各項貿易談判,尤其是WTO的參與,是一個巨大的工程,關係到數千個法規的修改。我很幸運可以把握機會,帶領協商團隊並且幫助台灣加入WTO。

In 2008, I saw another opportunity to again do something entirely different. That was to lead the DPP from the enormous challenges we were facing at the time, despite the fact that I had very little political experience.
2008年,我看見了另一個機會,接下一項截然不同的任務。那就是帶領民進黨走出當時我們所面臨的巨大挑戰,儘管當時我的政治歷練不多。

Each opportunity has helped me better define who I am and what I can do. And in the future, I hope I will have the opportunity to face another – and much greater – set of challenges in leading this country.
每一次的機會,幫助我更清楚定義我是誰,也更了解自己的能力。未來,我希望有機會可以面對另一個更大的挑戰,領導這個國家。

So while I can't tell you what the world will be like in 2050. I can tell that it will be what we make of it.
所以儘管我無法告訴各位,這個世界2050年會長什麼樣子,我可以肯定地說,未來的世界,取決於我們今天的一舉一動。

It will depend on whether you harness the opportunities of globalization to define your own place in the world.
取決於各位是否能駕馭全球化所帶來的契機,為自己在世界上的定位,自己下定義。

It will depend on whether you will be prepared enough to take advantage of the chances and opportunities that arise.
取決於各位是否準備好,抓緊迎面出現的機會與契機。

It will also depend on whether you can choose to look past, the tried, tested, and comfortable ways of doing things. Because all across the world, those things have already been done.
更取決於各位是否選擇超越過去做事情陳舊、過時的方法,超越自己的舒適圈。因為在世界各地,那些方法都已經被實踐。

I encourage you to be adventurous and challenge yourself. Take risks and think outside the box, because that is where the opportunities are.
我鼓勵各位勇於冒險、挑戰自我。勇於採取風險,並且不要被框架給侷限,因為機會往往就在框架之外。

Thank you.
謝謝大家



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